Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 8-K
 
CURRENT REPORT
Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Date of report (Date of earliest event reported): May 24, 2018
 
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation)
001-37848
(Commission File Number)
98-0664337
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
2221 Edward Holland Drive, Suite 600
Richmond, VA 23230
(Address of principal executive offices)
(804) 289-1300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐






Item 5.03.    Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

Effective May 25, 2018, the board of directors of Kinsale Capital Group, Inc. (the “Company”) approved amendments to Section 3.1 of the Company’s amended and restated by-laws (the “by-laws”) to change the voting standard for the election of directors from a plurality voting standard to a majority voting standard in uncontested elections. The by-laws previously provided for a plurality voting standard in both contested and uncontested elections of directors. Following the amendments, plurality voting will continue to be the voting standard in contested elections, which occurs when the number of director nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected. The foregoing description of the amendments to the by-laws does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the by-laws, filed as Exhibit 3.2 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

Item 5.07.    Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders.

The Company held its 2018 annual meeting of stockholders on May 24, 2018. Results of items presented for voting are listed below.

Proposal 1 - Amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to declassify the board of directors and make other ministerial changes.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For
 
Against
 
Abstain
 
Broker
Non-Votes
16,738,073
 
5,358
 
839
 
1,599,693

Proposal 2 - Election of seven directors to serve on the Company’s board of directors until the next annual meeting of stockholders or until their respective successors have been duly elected and qualified.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For
 
Withhold
 
Broker
Non-Votes
Michael P. Kehoe
16,607,241
 
137,029
 
1,599,693
Steven J. Bensinger
16,577,591
 
166,679
 
1,599,693
Anne C. Kronenberg
16,657,117
 
87,153
 
1,599,693
Robert Lippincott III
16,577,368
 
166,902
 
1,599,693
James J. Ritchie
16,642,583
 
101,687
 
1,599,693
Frederick L. Russell, Jr.
16,566,204
 
178,066
 
1,599,693
Gregory M. Share
16,652,877
 
91,393
 
1,599,693

Proposal 4 - Advisory vote to approve the compensation of the Company’s named executive officers.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For
 
Against
 
Abstain
 
Broker
Non-Votes
16,386,087
 
72,377
 
285,806
 
1,599,693






Proposal 5 - Advisory vote on the frequency of future advisory votes to approve the compensation of the Company’s named executive officers.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1 Year
 
2 Years
 
3 Years
 
Abstain
 
Broker
Non-Votes
16,541,466
 
4,738
 
79,781
 
118,285
 
1,599,693

Proposal 6 - Ratification of the appointment of KPMG LLP as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018.

 
 
 
 
 
For
 
Against
 
Abstain
18,178,359
 
64,101
 
101,503


Item 9.01    Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(d) Exhibits.
Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
 
 
3.1
 
3.2
 


SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.
 
 
Kinsale Capital Group, Inc.
 
 
 
Dated: May 24, 2018
By:
/s/ Bryan P. Petrucelli
 
 
Bryan P. Petrucelli
 
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer




Exhibit



SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
The undersigned, Michael P. Kehoe, certifies that he is the Chief Executive Officer, President and Director of Kinsale Capital Group, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (the “Corporation”), and does hereby further certify as follows:
(1)
The name of the Corporation is Kinsale Capital Group, Inc.

(2)
The name under which the Corporation was originally incorporated in the State of Delaware following its domestication from the Islands of Bermuda was Kinsale Capital Group Bermuda, Ltd. with the Certificate of Domestication of Non-United States Corporation and the original Certificate of Incorporation filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on September 5, 2014. The original Certificate of Incorporation was amended on September 5, 2014 by filing a certificate of ownership and merger with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, pursuant to which the Corporation changed its name to Kinsale Capital Group, Inc.

(3)
An Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on July 28, 2016 (the “First Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation”).

(4)
Pursuant to Sections 242 and 245 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation has been duly adopted in accordance therewith and restates and integrates and further amends the First Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as heretofore amended and supplemented.
The text of the First Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation is hereby amended and restated to read in its entirety as follows:
FIRST: The name of the Corporation is Kinsale Capital Group, Inc. (the “Corporation”).

SECOND: The address of the Corporation’s registered office in the State of Delaware is The Corporation Trust Company, 1209 Orange Street, Wilmington, Delaware, County of New Castle, 19801. The name of the Corporation’s registered agent at such address is The Corporation Trust Company.

THIRD: The nature of the business or purposes to be conducted or promoted is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the DGCL.

FOURTH:
(a)
Authorized Capital Stock. The total number of shares of stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 500,000,000 of which the Corporation shall have authority to issue 400,000,000 shares of common stock, each having a par value of





one cent ($0.01) per share (the “Common Stock”), and 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, each having a par value of one cent ($0.01) per share (the “Preferred Stock”).

(b)
Common Stock. The powers, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations and restrictions, of the Common Stock are as follows:

(1)
Each holder of record of shares of Common Stock shall be entitled to one vote for each share of Common Stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders of the Corporation on which holders of Common Stock are entitled to vote.

(2)
The holders of shares of Common Stock shall not have cumulative voting rights (as defined in Section 214 of the DGCL).

(3)
Subject to the rights of the holders of Preferred Stock, and subject to any other provisions of this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as it may be amended from time to time, holders of shares of Common Stock shall be entitled to receive such dividends and other distributions in cash, stock or property of the Corporation if, as and when declared thereon by the Board of Directors from time to time out of assets or funds of the Corporation legally available therefor.

(4)
In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary, after payment or provision for the payment of the debt and liabilities of the Corporation and subject to the prior payment in full of the preferential amounts, if any, to which any series of Preferred Stock may be entitled, the holders of shares of Common Stock shall be entitled to receive the assets and funds of the Corporation remaining for distribution in proportion to the number of shares held by them, respectively.

(5)
No holder of shares of Common Stock shall be entitled to preemptive or subscription rights.

(c)
Preferred Stock. The Board of Directors is expressly authorized to provide for the issuance of all or any shares of the Preferred Stock in one or more classes or series, and to fix for each such class or series such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such distinctive designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and such qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors providing for the issuance of such class or series and as may be permitted by the DGCL, including, without limitation, the authority to provide that any such class or series may be (i) subject to redemption at such time or times and at such price or prices; (ii) entitled to receive dividends (which may be cumulative or non-cumulative) at such rates, on such conditions, and at such times, and payable in preference to, or in such relation to, the dividends payable on any other class or classes of stock or any other series of stock; (iii) entitled to such rights upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, whether voluntary or involuntary, of the Corporation; or (iv) convertible into, or exchangeable for, shares of any other class or classes of stock, or shares of any other series of the same class of stock, of the Corporation at such





price or prices or at such rates of exchange and with such adjustments; all as may be stated in such resolution or resolutions.

(d)
Power to Sell and Purchase Shares. Subject to the requirements of applicable law, the Corporation shall have the power to issue and sell all or any part of any shares of any class of stock herein or hereafter authorized to such persons, and for such consideration, as the Board of Directors shall from time to time, in its discretion, determine, whether or not greater consideration could be received upon the issue or sale of the same number of shares of another class or of shares of another series of such class, and as otherwise permitted by law. Subject to the requirements of applicable law, the Corporation shall have the power to purchase any shares of any class of stock herein or hereafter authorized from such persons, and for such consideration, as the Board of Directors shall from time to time, in its discretion, determine, whether or not less consideration could be paid upon the purchase of the same number of shares of another class or of shares of another series of such class, and as otherwise permitted by law.

FIFTH: The following provisions are inserted for the management of the business and the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation, and for further definition, limitation and regulation of the powers of the Corporation and of its directors and stockholders:

(a)
The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by, or under the direction of, the Board of Directors. In addition to the powers and authority expressly conferred upon the Board of Directors by applicable law, this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the Amended and Restated By-Laws of the Corporation (as amended from time to time, the “By-Laws”), the directors are hereby empowered to exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation, subject to the provisions of the DGCL and this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.

(b)
The number of directors of the Corporation shall be fixed from time to time exclusively by resolution of the Board of Directors.

(c)
Each director shall be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders for a term expiring at the next succeeding annual meeting of stockholders and each director shall remain in office until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified, or until his or her earlier death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or removal. If the number of directors is increased, any additional director elected to fill a newly created directorship shall hold office for a term expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders. In no case will a decrease in the number of directors shorten the term of any incumbent director.

(d)
Subject to the terms of any one or more classes or series of Preferred Stock then outstanding, any vacancy on the Board of Directors that results from (i) removal of a director, (ii) an increase in the number of directors or (iii) death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or any other cause, will be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, even if less than a quorum remains, including by a sole remaining director. Any director elected to fill a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall hold office for a term expiring at the next succeeding annual meeting of stockholders. Any director elected to fill a vacancy





not resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall have the same remaining term as that of his or her predecessor. The right of stockholders to fill vacancies on the Board of Directors is hereby specifically denied.

(e)
Notwithstanding the foregoing, the election, term, removal and filling of vacancies with respect to directors, if any, elected separately by the holders of one or more classes or series of Preferred Stock shall not be governed by this Article FIFTH, but rather shall be as provided for in the resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors creating and establishing such class or series of Preferred Stock.

SIXTH: No director shall be personally liable to the Corporation or any of its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of any fiduciary duty as a director, except to the extent such exemption from liability or limitation thereof is not permitted under the DGCL. If the DGCL is amended hereafter to authorize the further elimination or limitation of the liability of directors, then the liability of a director of the Corporation shall be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as so amended. Any repeal or modification of this Article SIXTH shall not adversely affect any right or protection of a director of the Corporation existing at the time of such repeal or modification with respect to acts or omissions occurring prior to such repeal or modification.

SEVENTH: The Corporation shall indemnify any person that is or was a director or officer (and any person that is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise) to the fullest extent authorized or permitted by law, as now or hereafter in effect, and such right to indemnification shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation (or such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise) and shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, executors and personal and legal representatives; provided, however, that, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification, the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer (or his or her heirs, executors or personal or legal representatives) in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the Board of Directors. The right to indemnification conferred by this Article SEVENTH shall include the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses incurred in defending or otherwise participating in any proceeding in advance of its final disposition.
The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this Article SEVENTH.
The rights to indemnification and to the advance of expenses conferred in this Article SEVENTH shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the By-Laws, any statute or other law, by agreement, vote of stockholders or approval of the directors of the Corporation or otherwise.
Any repeal or modification of this Article SEVENTH shall not adversely affect any rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses of a director or officer of the Corporation existing at the time of such repeal or modification with respect to any acts or omissions occurring prior to such repeal or modification.
EIGHTH: Meetings of stockholders may be held within or without the State of Delaware, as the By-Laws may provide. The books of the Corporation may be kept (subject to any provision contained in the





DGCL) outside the State of Delaware at such place or places as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors or in the By-Laws.

NINTH: Except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation, for any purpose or purposes, may be called at any time only (i) by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, (ii) by the Chief Executive Officer (or, in the absence of a Chief Executive Officer, the President) of the Corporation or (iii) pursuant to a resolution duly adopted by a majority of the Board of Directors. Any power of the stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders is hereby specifically denied.
Advance notice of stockholder nominations for the election of directors of the Corporation and of business to be brought by stockholders before any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation shall be given in the manner provided in the By-Laws. No business other than that stated in the notice of such meeting (or any amendment or supplement thereto), which notice, in the case of a special meeting called by a stockholder or stockholders, shall include all business requested by such stockholder or stockholders to be transacted at such meeting, shall be transacted at any special meeting.
TENTH: In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred upon it by the laws of the State of Delaware, the Board of Directors shall have the power without the assent or vote of the stockholders to adopt, amend, alter or repeal the By-Laws. The affirmative vote of at least a majority of the Board of Directors shall be required to adopt, amend, alter or repeal the By-Laws. The By-Laws also may be adopted, amended, altered or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the Voting Stock.

ELEVENTH: The Corporation reserves the right to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, in the manner now or hereafter prescribed in the DGCL, and all rights conferred upon stockholders herein are granted subject to such reservation.

TWELFTH: The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any actual or purported derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders or creditors, (c) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any director or officer of the Corporation arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the By-Laws, or (d) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any director or officer of the Corporation governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided, however, that, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware dismisses any such action for lack of subject matter jurisdiction, such action may be brought in another state court sitting in the State of Delaware. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in the shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article TWELFTH.

THIRTEENTH: If any provision or provisions of this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any circumstance for any reason whatsoever: (i) the validity, legality and enforceability of such provisions in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including, without limitation, each portion of any paragraph of this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable that is not itself held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby and (ii) to the fullest extent possible, the provisions of this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including, without limitation, each such portion of any paragraph of this Second Amended and Restated





Certificate of Incorporation containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall be construed so as to permit the Corporation to protect its directors, officers, employees and agents from personal liability in respect of their good faith service to or for the benefit of the Corporation to the fullest extent authorized or permitted by law.

(Next Page Is Signature Page)











IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused this Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to be executed on its behalf this 24th day of May, 2018.
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
By: /s/ Michael P. Kehoe
Michael P. Kehoe
Chief Executive Officer and President




Exhibit







AMENDED AND RESTATED
BY-LAWS
OF
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
A Delaware Corporation
Effective May 25, 2018





TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
Page

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OFFICES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 1.1
 
Registered Office
 
1

Section 1.2
 
Other Offices
 
1

 
 
ARTICLE II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 2.1
 
Place of Meetings
 
1

Section 2.2
 
Annual Meetings
 
1

Section 2.3
 
Special Meetings
 
1

Section 2.4
 
Nature of Business at Meetings of Stockholders
 
1

Section 2.5
 
Nomination of Directors
 
3

Section 2.6
 
Notice
 
6

Section 2.7
 
Adjournments
 
6

Section 2.8
 
Quorum
 
6

Section 2.9
 
Voting
 
7

Section 2.10
 
Proxies
 
7

Section 2.11
 
List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote
 
8

Section 2.12
 
Record Date
 
8

Section 2.13
 
Stock Ledger
 
9

Section 2.14
 
Conduct of Meetings
 
9

Section 2.15
 
Inspectors of Election
 
9

Section 2.16
 
No Consent of Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting
 
10

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DIRECTORS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 3.1
 
Number, Election and Term of Office
 
10

Section 3.2
 
Vacancies
 
10

Section 3.3
 
Duties and Powers
 
10

Section 3.4
 
Meetings
 
10

Section 3.5
 
Organization
 
11

Section 3.6
 
Resignations and Removals of Directors
 
11

Section 3.7
 
Quorum
 
11

Section 3.8
 
Actions of the Board of Directors by Written Consent
 
11

Section 3.9
 
Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone
 
11

Section 3.10
 
Committees
 
12

Section 3.11
 
Compensation
 
12


i



Section 3.12
 
Interested Directors
 
12

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OFFICERS
 
 
Section 4.1
 
General
 
13

Section 4.2
 
Election
 
13

Section 4.3
 
Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation
 
13

Section 4.4
 
Chairman of the Board of Directors
 
13

Section 4.5
 
President
 
14

Section 4.6
 
Vice Presidents
 
14

Section 4.7
 
Secretary
 
14

Section 4.8
 
Treasurer
 
15

Section 4.9
 
Assistant Secretaries
 
15

Section 4.10
 
Assistant Treasurers
 
15

Section 4.11
 
Other Officers
 
15

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE V
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
STOCK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 5.1
 
Form Shares of Stock    
 
16

Section 5.2
 
Signatures
 
16

Section 5.3
 
Lost Certificates
 
16

Section 5.4
 
Transfers
 
16

Section 5.5
 
Dividend Record Date
 
17

Section 5.6
 
Record Owners
 
17

Section 5.7
 
Transfer and Registry Agents
 
17

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE VI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NOTICES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 6.1
 
Notices
 
17

Section 6.2
 
Waivers of Notice
 
18

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE VII
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GENERAL PROVISIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 7.1
 
Dividends
 
18

Section 7.2
 
Disbursements    
 
18

Section 7.3
 
Fiscal Year
 
18

Section 7.4
 
Corporate Seal    
 
18

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ii



 
 
ARTICLE VIII
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEMNIFICATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 8.1
 
Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings Other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation
 
19

Section 8.2
 
Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation
 
19

Section 8.3
 
Authorization of Indemnification
 
19

Section 8.4
 
Good Faith Defined
 
20

Section 8.5
 
Indemnification by a Court
 
20

Section 8.6
 
Expenses Payable in Advance    
 
21

Section 8.7
 
Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses
 
21

Section 8.8
 
Insurance
 
21

Section 8.9
 
Certain Definitions
 
21

Section 8.10
 
Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses
 
22

Section 8.11
 
Limitation on Indemnification
 
22

Section 8.12
 
Indemnification of Employees and Agents
 
22

Section 8.13
 
Indemnification Priority
 
22

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE IX
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AMENDMENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 9.1
 
Amendments
 
23

Section 9.2
 
Entire Board of Directors
 
23

 
 
 
 
 


iii



AMENDED AND RESTATED
BY-LAWS
OF
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
(hereinafter called the “Corporation”)
ARTICLE I
OFFICES

Section 1.1Registered Office. The registered office of the Corporation shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware.

Section 1.2Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”) may from time to time determine.

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 2.1Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such time and place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of the stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication in the manner authorized by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”).

Section 2.2Annual Meetings. The annual meeting of stockholders (the “Annual Meeting”) for the election of directors shall be held on such date and at such time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. Any other proper business may be transacted at the Annual Meeting.

Section 2.3    Special Meetings. Unless otherwise required by law or by the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended and restated from time to time (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), special meetings of the stockholders (a “Special Meeting”), for any purpose or purposes, shall be called in the manner provided by the Certificate of Incorporation. A request to call a Special Meeting shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting.

Section 2.4    Nature of Business at Meetings of Stockholders. Only such business (other than nominations for election to the Board of Directors, which must comply with the provisions of Section 5 of this Article II) may be transacted at an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting as is (a) specified in the notice of meeting (or any amendment or supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), (b) otherwise properly brought before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (c) otherwise properly brought before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting by any stockholder of the Corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this

1



Section 4 of this Article II and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting and (ii) who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 4 of this Article II. Notwithstanding the foregoing, at a Special Meeting, only such business shall be conducted as specified in the notice of meeting (or any amendment or supplement thereto).
In addition to any other applicable requirements, for business to be properly brought before an Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting by a stockholder, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary of the Corporation (the “Secretary”).
To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to, or be mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation (a) in the case of an Annual Meeting, not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding Annual Meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the Annual Meeting is called for a date that is not within twenty-five (25) days before or after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the Annual Meeting was mailed or such public disclosure of the date of the Annual Meeting was made, whichever first occurs; and (b) in the case of a Special Meeting, no later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the Special Meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the Special Meeting was made, whichever first occurs. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting, or the public announcement of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must set forth the following information: (a) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting (including the specific text of any resolutions or actions proposed for consideration and if such business includes a proposal to amend the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, the specific language of the proposed amendment) and the reasons for conducting such business at the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting, and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is being made, (i) the name and record address of such person as they appear on the Corporation’s books, (ii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name and address of each nominee holder of shares of all stock of the Corporation owned beneficially, but not of record, by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation, (iii) a description of all agreements, arrangements, or understandings (whether written or oral) between or among such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business and any material interest of such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, in such business, including any anticipated benefit therefrom to such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, (iv) a representation that the stockholder giving notice

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intends to appear in person or by proxy at the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting to bring such business before the meeting, and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies by such person with respect to the proposed business to be brought by such person before the Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 4 of this Article II shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting.
No business shall be conducted at the Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting except business brought before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 4 of this Article II; provided, however, that, once business has been properly brought before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting in accordance with such procedures, nothing in this Section 4 of this Article II shall be deemed to preclude discussion by any stockholder of any such business. If the chairman of an Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting determines that business was not properly brought before the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting in accordance with the foregoing procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the business was not properly brought before the meeting and such business shall not be transacted.
Nothing contained in this Section 4 of this Article II shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act (or any successor provision of law).
Section 2.5    Nomination of Directors. Only persons who are nominated in accordance with the following procedures shall be eligible for election as directors of the Corporation, except as may be otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at any Annual Meeting, or at any Special Meeting called for the purpose of electing directors, in either case, (a) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (b) by any stockholder of the Corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 5 of this Article II and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting and (ii) who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 5 of this Article II.
In addition to any other applicable requirements, for a nomination to be made by a stockholder, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary.
To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to, or be mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation (a) in the case of an Annual Meeting, not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding Annual Meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the Annual Meeting is called for a date that is not within twenty-five (25) days before or after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the Annual Meeting was mailed or such public disclosure of the date of the Annual Meeting was made, whichever first occurs; and (b) in the case of a Special Meeting called for the

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purpose of electing directors, not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the Special Meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the Special Meeting was made, whichever first occurs. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting called for the purpose of electing directors, or the public announcement of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must set forth the following information: (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director (i) the name, age, business address and residence address of such person, (ii) the principal occupation or employment of such person, (iii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of all stock of the Corporation owned beneficially, but not of record, by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation, and (iv) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice, and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made, (i) the name and record address of such person as they appear on the Corporation’s books, (ii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation, (iii) a description of all agreements, arrangements, or understandings (whether written or oral) between or among such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, and any proposed nominee or any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the nomination(s) are being made by such person, and any material interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, in such nomination, including any anticipated benefit therefrom to such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, (iv) a representation that the stockholder giving notice intends to appear in person or by proxy at the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting to nominate the persons named in its notice, and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies for election of directors pursuant

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to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Such notice must be accompanied by a written consent of each proposed nominee to being named as a nominee and to serve as a director if elected.
A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 5 of this Article II shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting.
No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 5 of this Article II. If the chairman of an Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting for the election of directors determines that a nomination was not made in accordance with the foregoing procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the nomination was defective and such defective nomination shall be disregarded.
Notwithstanding any provision of this Section 5 of this Article II to the contrary, a nomination of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be submitted for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to the final rules adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) providing for such nominations and inclusion (“final proxy access rules”), and, if such nomination is submitted under the final proxy access rules, such submission (a) in order to be timely, must be delivered to, or be mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation no later than 120 calendar days before the date that the Corporation mailed (or otherwise disseminated) its proxy materials for the prior year’s Annual Meeting (or such other date as may be set forth in the final proxy access rules for companies without advance notice bylaws); (b) in all other respects, must be made pursuant to, and in accordance with, the terms of the final proxy access rules, as in effect at the time of the nomination, or any successor rules or regulations of the SEC then in effect; and (c) must provide the Corporation with any other information required by this Section 5 of this Article II for nominations not made under the final proxy access rules except to the extent that requiring such information to be furnished is prohibited by the final proxy access rules. The provisions of this paragraph of this Section 5 of this Article II do not provide stockholders of the Corporation with any rights, nor impose upon the Corporation any obligations, other than the rights and obligations set forth in the final proxy access rules.
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in these By-Laws, nothing contained in this Section 5 of this Article II or in any other provision of these By-Laws shall affect or impair any rights of any persons party to the Director Nomination Agreement to have any person designated by such person to be a nominee for election to the board of directors to have such nominee included in the Corporation’s proxy statement.
Section 2.6    Notice. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a Special Meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise required by law, written notice of any meeting shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to notice of and to vote at such meeting.


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Section 2.7    Adjournments. Any meeting of the stockholders may be adjourned from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, notice of the adjourned meeting in accordance with the requirements of Section 6 of this Article II shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to notice of and to vote at the meeting.

Section 2.8    Quorum. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, the holders of a majority of the Corporation’s capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business. A quorum, once established, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, in the manner provided in Section 7 of this Article II, until a quorum shall be present or represented.

Section 2.9    Voting. Unless otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or any rule of any stock exchange on which the Corporation’s shares are listed and traded, any question brought before any meeting of the stockholders, other than the election of directors, shall be decided by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of votes of the Corporation’s capital stock represented at the meeting and entitled to vote on such question, voting as a single class. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and subject to Section 12 (a) of this Article II, each stockholder represented at a meeting of the stockholders shall be entitled to cast one (1) vote for each share of the capital stock entitled to vote thereat held by such stockholder. Such votes may be cast in person or by proxy as provided in Section 10 of this Article II. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, or the officer of the Corporation presiding at a meeting of the stockholders, in such officer’s discretion, may require that any votes cast at such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.

Section 2.10    Proxies. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of the stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted upon after three years from its date, unless such proxy provides for a longer period. Without limiting the manner in which a stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy, the following shall constitute a valid means by which a stockholder may grant such authority:

(i.)A stockholder may execute a writing authorizing another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy. Execution may be accomplished by the stockholder or such stockholder’s authorized officer, director, employee or agent signing such writing or causing such person’s signature to be affixed to such writing by any reasonable means, including, but not limited to, by facsimile signature.

(ii.)A stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy by transmitting or authorizing the transmission of a telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission to the person who will be the holder of the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization or like agent duly authorized by the person who will be the holder of the proxy to receive such transmission, provided that any such telegram, cablegram or other

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electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder. If it is determined that such telegrams, cablegrams or other electronic transmissions are valid, the inspectors or, if there are no inspectors, such other persons making that determination shall specify the information on which they relied.
Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of the writing or transmission authorizing another person or persons to act as proxy for a stockholder may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used; provided, however, that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or transmission.
Section 2.11    List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The officer of the Corporation who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation (the “Stock Ledger”) shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of the stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

Section 2.12    Record Date

(a.)In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of the stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of the stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of the stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

(b.)In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing

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without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the Corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

Section 2.13    Stock Ledger. The Stock Ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the Stock Ledger, the list required by Section 11 of this Article II or the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of the stockholders.

Section 2.14    Conduct of Meetings. The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of any meeting of the stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of the stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) the determination of when the polls shall open and close for any given matter to be voted on at the meeting; (iii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iv) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (v) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (vi) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants.

Section 2.15    Inspectors of Election. In advance of any meeting of the stockholders, the Board of Directors, by resolution, the Chairman or the President shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of the stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the Corporation. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of the duties of inspector, shall take and sign an oath to faithfully execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability. The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and shall take charge of the polls and, when the vote is completed, shall make a certificate of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by applicable law.

Section 2.16    No Consent of Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting. The right of the stockholders to act by written consent in lieu of a meeting shall be as set forth in Article NINTH of the Certificate of Incorporation.

ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 3.1    Number, Election and Term of Office. The number of directors shall be fixed from time to time exclusively by the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by the Board of Directors

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in accordance with Article FIFTH of the Certificate of Incorporation. Except as provided in the Certificate of Incorporation and in Section 2 of this Article III, each director shall be elected by a vote of the majority of the votes cast with respect to the director nominee at each Annual Meeting at which a quorum is present; provided, that if the number of director nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected, the directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast in such election. For purposes of this Article III, a majority of the votes cast means that the number of shares voted “for” a director must exceed the number of shares voted “against” that director. Directors need not be stockholders.

Section 3.2    Vacancies. Any vacancy in the Board of Directors, however resulting, may be filled only in the manner provided in, and only to the extent permitted under, the Certificate of Incorporation.

Section 3.3    Duties and Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors which may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-Laws required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

Section 3.4    Meetings. The Board of Directors and any committee thereof may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof may be held without notice (provided that a schedule of meetings referencing the time and place of such meeting shall have been delivered to the Board of Directors not less than three (3) business days prior to such regular meeting) at such time and at such place as may from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors or such committee, respectively. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called only in the manner provided in, and only to the extent permitted under, the Certificate of Incorporation. Special meetings of any committee of the Board of Directors may be called by the chairman of such committee, if there be one, by the President, or by any director serving on such committee. Notice thereof stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director (or, in the case of a committee, to each member of such committee) either by mail not less than forty-eight (48) hours before the date of the meeting, by telephone, electronic transmission or telegram on twenty-four (24) hours’ notice, or on such shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary or appropriate in the circumstances.

Section 3.5    Organization. At each meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, the Chairman or the chairman of such committee, as the case may be, or, in his or her absence or if is no such chairman, a director chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall act as chairman. Except as provided below, the Secretary shall act as secretary at each meeting of the Board of Directors and of each committee thereof. In case the Secretary shall be absent from any meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, an Assistant Secretary shall perform the duties of secretary at such meeting; and in the absence from any such meeting of the Secretary and all the Assistant Secretaries, the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the members of each committee of the Board of Directors may appoint any person to act as secretary of any meeting of such committee and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Corporation may, but need not if such committee so elects, serve in such capacity.

Section 3.6    Resignations and Removals of Directors. Any director of the Corporation may resign from the Board of Directors or any committee thereof at any time, by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Chairman, if there be one, the President or the Secretary and, in the case of a committee, to the chairman of such committee, if there be one. Such resignation shall take effect at the time therein specified or, if no time is specified, immediately; and, unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any director or the entire Board of Directors

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may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Any director serving on a committee of the Board of Directors may be removed from such committee at any time by the Board of Directors.

Section 3.7    Quorum. Except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or quotation system on which the Corporation’s securities are listed or quoted for trading, at all meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, a majority of the entire Board of Directors or a majority of the directors constituting such committee, as the case may be, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors or committee members present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors or such committee, as applicable. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting of the time and place of the adjourned meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

Section 3.8    Actions of the Board of Directors by Written Consent. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all the members of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or such committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

Section 3.9    Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, members of the Board of Directors, or any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 9 of this Article III shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 3.10    Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. Each member of a committee must meet the requirements for membership, if any, imposed by applicable law and the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or quotation system on which the securities of the Corporation are listed or quoted for trading. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of any such committee. Subject to the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or quotation system on which the securities of the Corporation are listed or quoted for trading, in the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another qualified member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or disqualified member. Any committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it. Each committee shall keep regular minutes and report to the Board of Directors when required.


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Section 3.11    Compensation. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary for service as director, payable in cash or securities. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for service as committee members.

Section 3.12    Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because any such director’s or officer’s vote is counted for such purpose if: (i) the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; (ii) the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board of Directors, a committee thereof or the stockholders. Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.

ARTICLE IV

OFFICERS

Section 4.1    General. The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall include a President and a Secretary. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, also may choose a Chairman (who must be a director) and one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Treasurers, Assistant Treasurers and other officers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless otherwise prohibited by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws. The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation nor, except in the case of the Chairman, need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

Section 4.2    Election. The Board of Directors, at its first meeting held after each Annual Meeting (or action by written consent of stockholders in lieu of the Annual Meeting if permitted by the Certificate of Incorporation and these By-Laws), shall elect the officers of the Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; and each officer of the Corporation shall hold office until such officer’s successor is elected and qualified, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Any officer of the Corporation may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors. The salaries of all officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.3    Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation. Powers of attorney, proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation by the President or any Vice President or any other

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officer authorized to do so by the Board of Directors and any such officer may, in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of security holders of any corporation in which the Corporation may own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and all rights and power incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if present. The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer like powers upon any other person or persons.

Section 4.4    Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman, if there be one, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors. The Chairman shall be the President of the Corporation, unless the Board of Directors designates another director to serve as Chairman, and, except where by law the signature of the President is required, the Chairman shall possess the same power as the President to sign all contracts, certificates and other instruments of the Corporation which may be authorized by the Board of Directors. During the absence or disability of the President, the Chairman shall exercise all the powers and discharge all the duties of the President. The Chairman shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.5    President. The President shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors and, if there be one, the Chairman, have general supervision of the business of the Corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect. The President shall execute all bonds, mortgages, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation requiring a seal, under the seal of the Corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except that the other officers of the Corporation may sign and execute documents when so authorized by these By-Laws, the Board of Directors or the President. In the absence or disability of the Chairman, or if there be none, the President shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, provided the President is also a director, the Board of Directors. If there be no Chairman, or if the Board of Directors shall otherwise designate, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer. The President shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned to such officer by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.6    Vice Presidents. At the request of the President or in the President’s absence or in the event of the President’s inability or refusal to act (and if there be no Chairman), the Vice President, or the Vice Presidents if there are more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors), shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President. Each Vice President shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe. If there be no Chairman and no Vice President, the Board of Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of the President or in the event of the inability or refusal of the President to act, shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.

Section 4.7    Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings thereat in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; the Secretary shall also perform like duties for committees of the Board of Directors when required. The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, the Chairman or the President, under whose supervision the Secretary shall be. If the Secretary shall be unable or shall refuse to cause to be given notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and if there be no Assistant Secretary, then either the Board of Directors or the President

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may choose another officer to cause such notice to be given. The Secretary shall have custody of the seal of the Corporation and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by the signature of the Secretary or by the signature of any such Assistant Secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Corporation and to attest to the affixing by such officer’s signature. The Secretary shall see that all books, reports, statements, certificates and other documents and records required by law to be kept or filed are properly kept or filed, as the case may be.

Section 4.8    Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation. If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of the office of the Treasurer and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of the Treasurer’s death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in the Treasurer’s possession or under the Treasurer’s control belonging to the Corporation.

Section 4.9    Assistant Secretaries. Assistant Secretaries, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Secretary, and in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of the Secretary’s inability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Secretary, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Secretary.

Section 4.10    Assistant Treasurers. Assistant Treasurers, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Treasurer, and in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of the Treasurer’s inability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Treasurer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Treasurer. If required by the Board of Directors, an Assistant Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of the office of Assistant Treasurer and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of the Assistant Treasurer’s death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in the Assistant Treasurer’s possession or under the Assistant Treasurer’s control belonging to the Corporation.

Section 4.11    Other Officers. Such other officers as the Board of Directors may choose shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate to any other officer of the Corporation the power to choose such other officers and to prescribe their respective duties and powers.


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ARTICLE V

STOCK

Section 5.1    Form Shares of Stock. The shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be represented by a certificate, unless and until the Board of Directors adopts a resolution permitting shares to be uncertificated. Notwithstanding the adoption of any such resolution providing for uncertificated shares, every holder of capital stock of the Corporation theretofore represented by certificates and, upon request, every holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate for shares of capital stock of the Corporation signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, the Chairman, or the President or any Vice President, and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary representing the number of shares registered in certificate form.

Section 5.2    Signatures. To the extent any shares are represented by certificates, any or all of the signatures on a certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Section 5.3    Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or uncertificated shares be issued in place of any certificate theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issuance of a new certificate or uncertificated shares, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as the Board of Directors shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

Section 5.4    Transfers. Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by applicable law and in these By-Laws. Transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, and (a) in the case of certificated shares of stock, only by the person named in the certificate or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing and upon the surrender of the certificate therefor, properly endorsed for transfer and payment of all necessary transfer taxes, or, (b) in the case of uncertificated shares of stock, upon receipt of proper transfer instructions from the registered holder of the shares or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing, and upon payment of all necessary transfer taxes and compliance with appropriate procedures for transferring shares in uncertificated form; provided, however, that such surrender and endorsement (to the extent any shares are represented by certificates), compliance or payment of taxes shall not be required in any case in which the officers of the Corporation shall determine to waive such requirement. With respect to certificated shares of stock, every certificate exchanged, returned or surrendered to the Corporation shall be marked “Cancelled,” with the date of cancellation, by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or the transfer agent thereof. No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing from and to whom transferred.

Section 5.5    Dividend Record Date. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose

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of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 5.6    Record Owners. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise required by law.

Section 5.7    Transfer and Registry Agents. The Corporation may from time to time maintain one or more transfer offices or agencies and registry offices or agencies at such place or places as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE VI

NOTICES

Section 6.1    Notices. Whenever written notice is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, such notice may be given by mail, addressed to such director, member of a committee or stockholder, at such person’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission if consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed to be revoked if (i) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two (2) consecutive notices by the Corporation in accordance with such consent and (ii) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or Assistant Secretary or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, that the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Notice given by electronic transmission, as described above, shall be deemed given: (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the person has consented to receive notice; (iii) in the case of notices to stockholders, if by a posting on an electronic network, together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission consented to by such person in advance, when directed to such person. Notice to directors or committee members may be given personally or by telegram, telex, cable or by means of electronic transmission.

Section 6.2    Waivers of Notice. Whenever any notice is required by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person or persons entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting, present in person or represented by proxy,

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shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the person attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any Annual Meeting or Special Meeting or any regular or special meeting of the directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws.

ARTICLE VII

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 7.1    Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation, subject to the requirements of the DGCL and the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors (or any action by written consent in lieu thereof in accordance with Section 10 of Article III hereof), and may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the Corporation’s capital stock. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in its absolute discretion, deems proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for purchasing any of the shares of capital stock, warrants, rights, options, bonds, debentures, notes, scrip or other securities or evidences of indebtedness of the Corporation, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for any proper purpose, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

Section 7.2    Disbursements. All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

Section 7.3    Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be January 1 to December 31 or as otherwise fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

Section 7.4    Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Corporation, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware”. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

ARTICLE VIII

INDEMNIFICATION

Section 8.1    Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings Other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 3 of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation), by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal

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action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was unlawful.

Section 8.2    Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 3 of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Section 8.3    Authorization of Indemnification. Any indemnification under this Article VIII (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion or (iv) by the stockholders. Such determination shall be made, with respect to former directors and officers, by any person or persons having the authority to act on the matter on behalf of the Corporation. To the extent, however, that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding described above, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific case.

Section 8.4    Good Faith Defined. For purposes of any determination under Section 3 of this Article VIII, a person shall be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful, if such person’s action is based on the records or books of account of the Corporation or another enterprise, or on information supplied to such person by the officers of the Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another enterprise. The provisions of this Section 4 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in

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which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be.

Section 8.5    Indemnification by a Court. Notwithstanding any contrary determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this Article VIII, and notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, any director or officer may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware for indemnification to the extent otherwise permissible under Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII. The basis of such indemnification by a court shall be a determination by such court that indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be. Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this Article VIII nor the absence of any determination thereunder shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the director or officer seeking indemnification has not met any applicable standard of conduct. Notice of any application for indemnification pursuant to this Section 5 shall be given to the Corporation promptly upon the filing of such application. If successful, in whole or in part, the director or officer seeking indemnification shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such application.

Section 8.6    Expenses Payable in Advance. Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a director or officer in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article VIII. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Corporation deems appropriate.

Section 8.7    Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VIII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons specified in Section 1 and Section 2 of this Article VIII shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. The provisions of this Article VIII shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the DGCL, or otherwise.

Section 8.8    Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article VIII.

Section 8.9    Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Article VIII, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors or officers, so that any person who is or was a director

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or officer of such constituent corporation, or is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VIII with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued. The term “another enterprise” as used in this Article VIII shall mean any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent. For purposes of this Article VIII, references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director or officer with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article VIII.

Section 8.10    Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VIII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

Section 8.11    Limitation on Indemnification. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VIII to the contrary, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification (which shall be governed by Section 5 of this Article VIII), the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer (or his or her heirs, executors or personal or legal representatives) or advance expenses in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the Board of Directors.

Section 8.12    Indemnification of Employees and Agents. The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this Article VIII to directors and officers of the Corporation.

Section 8.13    Indemnification Priority. As between the Corporation and any other person (other than an entity directly or indirectly controlled by the Corporation) who provides indemnification to any person entitled to indemnification hereunder (each an “Indemnitee”) for their service to, or on behalf of, the Corporation (collectively, the “Secondary Indemnitors”) (i) the Corporation shall be the full indemnitor of first resort in respect of indemnification or advancement of expenses in connection with any Jointly Indemnifiable Claims (as defined below), pursuant to and in accordance with the terms of this Article VIII, irrespective of any right of indemnification, advancement of expenses or other right of recovery any Indemnitee may have from any Secondary Indemnitor or any right to insurance coverage that Indemnitee may have under any insurance policy issued to any Secondary Indemnitor (i.e., the Corporation’s obligations to such Indemnitees are primary and any obligation of any Secondary Indemnitor, or any insurer of any Secondary Indemnitor, to advance expenses or to provide indemnification or insurance coverage for the same loss or liability incurred by such Indemnitees is secondary to the Corporation’s obligations), (ii) the Corporation shall be required to advance the full amount of expenses incurred by any such Indemnitee and shall be liable for the full amount of all liability and loss suffered by such Indemnitee (including, but not limited to, expenses (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees and expenses), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such Indemnitee in connection with such Proceeding),

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without regard to any rights any such Indemnitee may have against any Secondary Indemnitor or against any insurance carrier providing insurance coverage to Indemnitee under any insurance policy issued to a Secondary Indemnitor, and (iii) the Corporation irrevocably waives, relinquishes and releases each Secondary Indemnitor from any and all claims against such Secondary Indemnitor for contribution, subrogation or any other recovery of any kind in respect thereof. The Corporation shall indemnify each Secondary Indemnitor directly for any amounts that such Secondary Indemnitor pays as indemnification or advancement on behalf of any such Indemnitee and for which such Indemnitee may be entitled to indemnification from the Corporation in connection with Jointly Indemnifiable Claims. No right of indemnification, advancement of expenses or other right of recovery that an Indemnitee may have from any Secondary Indemnitor shall reduce or otherwise alter the rights of the Indemnitee or the obligations of the Corporation hereunder. No advancement or payment by any Secondary Indemnitor on behalf of any such Indemnitee with respect to any claim for which such Indemnitee has sought indemnification from the Corporation shall affect the foregoing and the Secondary Indemnitors shall be subrogated to the extent of such advancement or payment to all of the rights of recovery of such Indemnitee against the Corporation. Each Indemnitee shall execute all papers reasonably required and shall do all things that may be reasonably necessary to secure the rights of such Indemnitee’s Secondary Indemnitors under this Section 13 of this Article VIII, including the execution of such documents as may be necessary to enable the Secondary Indemnitors effectively to bring suit to enforce such rights, including in the right of the Corporation. Each of the Secondary Indemnitors shall be third-party beneficiaries with respect to this Section 13 of this Article VIII, entitled to enforce this Section 13 of this Article VIII. As used in this Section 13 of this Article VIII, the term “Jointly Indemnifiable Claims” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, any action, suit, proceeding or other matter for which an Indemnitee shall be entitled to indemnification, reimbursement, advancement of expenses or insurance coverage from both a Secondary Indemnitor (or an insurance carrier providing insurance coverage to any Secondary Indemnitor) and the Corporation, whether pursuant to Delaware law (or other applicable law in the case of any Secondary Indemnitor), any agreement or certificate of incorporation, bylaws, partnership agreement, operating agreement, certificate of formation, certificate of limited partnership or other organizational or governing documents of the Corporation or the Secondary Indemnitors or any insurance policy providing insurance coverage to any Secondary Indemnitor, as applicable.

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS

Section 9.1    Amendments. These By-Laws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new By-Laws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new By-Laws be contained in the notice of such meeting of the stockholders or Board of Directors, as the case may be. Except where otherwise required by these By-Laws or the Certificate of Incorporation, the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the Board of Directors shall be required to adopt, amend, alter or repeal these By-Laws. These By-Laws also may be adopted, amended, altered or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereon.

Section 9.2    Entire Board of Directors. As used in this Article IX and in these By-Laws generally, the term “entire Board of Directors” means the total number of directors which the Corporation would have if there were no vacancies.


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