Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from _______ to _______
Commission File Number: 001-37848
 
 
 
 
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 
98-0664337
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
2221 Edward Holland Drive, Suite 600
Richmond, VA 23230

 
 
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
 
(804) 289-1300
 
 
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒   No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).


Yes  
     No  ☒
Number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding at October 26, 2018: 21,227,746


Table of Contents

KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
Item 3.
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
Item 1A.
 
Item 2.
 
Item 6.
 
 
 


1

Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)
 
 
September 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
 
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Assets
 
 
 
 
Investments:
 
 
 
 
Fixed-maturity securities available for sale, at fair value (amortized cost: $514,980 in 2018; $422,255 in 2017)
 
$
508,011

 
$
425,191

Equity securities, at fair value (cost: $52,658 in 2018; $45,916 in 2017)
 
61,448

 
54,132

Total investments
 
569,459

 
479,323

Cash and cash equivalents
 
64,744

 
81,747

Investment income due and accrued
 
3,711

 
3,077

Premiums receivable, net
 
22,465

 
19,787

Reinsurance recoverables
 
64,949

 
49,593

Ceded unearned premiums
 
15,646

 
13,858

Deferred policy acquisition costs, net of ceding commissions
 
14,485

 
11,775

Intangible assets
 
3,538

 
3,538

Deferred income tax asset, net
 
6,129

 
2,492

Other assets
 
5,375

 
2,659

Total assets
 
$
770,501

 
$
667,849

 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses
 
$
365,814

 
$
315,717

Unearned premiums
 
125,574

 
103,110

Payable to reinsurers
 
5,313

 
3,226

Accounts payable and accrued expenses
 
5,726

 
6,519

Other liabilities
 
10,169

 
1,088

Total liabilities
 
512,596

 
429,660

 
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
 
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 400,000,000 shares authorized, 21,226,512 and 21,036,087 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
 
212

 
210

Additional paid-in capital
 
157,721

 
155,082

Retained earnings
 
103,584

 
73,502

Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income
 
(3,612
)
 
9,395

Total stockholders’ equity
 
257,905

 
238,189

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
$
770,501

 
$
667,849


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

2

Table of Contents

KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income (Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross written premiums
 
$
69,546

 
$
55,633

 
$
203,374

 
$
166,248

Ceded written premiums
 
(11,602
)
 
(8,562
)
 
(29,448
)
 
(25,242
)
Net written premiums
 
57,944

 
47,071

 
173,926

 
141,006

Change in unearned premiums
 
(3,648
)
 
(2,041
)
 
(20,676
)
 
(12,491
)
Net earned premiums
 
54,296

 
45,030

 
153,250

 
128,515

Net investment income
 
4,085

 
2,765

 
11,096

 
7,483

Net unrealized gains on equity securities
 
1,760

 

 
575

 

Net realized (losses) gains on investments
 
(6
)
 
44

 
280

 
36

Other income
 
2

 

 
9

 

Total revenues
 
60,137

 
47,839

 
165,210

 
136,034

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Losses and loss adjustment expenses
 
32,085

 
31,568

 
90,951

 
75,534

Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses
 
13,850

 
10,989

 
38,767

 
32,775

Other expenses
 
107

 
27

 
121

 
429

Total expenses
 
46,042

 
42,584

 
129,839

 
108,738

Income before income taxes
 
14,095

 
5,255

 
35,371

 
27,296

Total income tax expense
 
2,155

 
1,054

 
6,032

 
8,319

Net income
 
11,940

 
4,201

 
29,339

 
18,977

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in unrealized (losses) gains on available-for-sale investments, net of taxes of $(519) and $(2,080) in 2018 and $882 and $2,630 in 2017
 
(1,953
)
 
1,639

 
(7,825
)
 
4,886

Total comprehensive income
 
$
9,987

 
$
5,840

 
$
21,514

 
$
23,863

Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
0.57

 
$
0.20

 
$
1.39

 
$
0.90

Diluted
 
$
0.55

 
$
0.20

 
$
1.35

 
$
0.88

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
21,102

 
20,995

 
21,073

 
20,978

Diluted
 
21,721

 
21,520

 
21,671

 
21,461

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends declared per share
 
$
0.07

 
$
0.06

 
$
0.21

 
$
0.18

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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Table of Contents

KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity (Unaudited)
 
 
Shares of Common Stock
 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Retained Earnings
 
Accumu-
lated
 Other
Compre-
hensive
Income (Loss)
 
Total
Stock-
holders' Equity
 
 
(in thousands)
Balance at December 31, 2016
 
20,969

 
$
210

 
$
153,353

 
$
53,640

 
$
3,011

 
$
210,214

Issuance of common stock under stock-based compensation plan
 
60

 

 
968

 

 

 
968

Stock-based compensation
 

 

 
490

 

 

 
490

Dividends declared
 

 

 

 
(3,777
)
 

 
(3,777
)
Other comprehensive income, net of tax
 

 

 

 

 
4,886

 
4,886

Net income
 

 

 

 
18,977

 

 
18,977

Balance at September 30, 2017
 
21,029

 
$
210

 
$
154,811

 
$
68,840

 
$
7,897

 
$
231,758

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at December 31, 2017
 
21,036

 
$
210

 
$
155,082

 
$
73,502

 
$
9,395

 
$
238,189

Cumulative effect adjustment - net unrealized gains on equity securities, net of tax
 

 

 

 
6,490

 
(6,490
)
 

Balance at January 1, 2018, as adjusted
 
21,036

 
210

 
155,082

 
79,992

 
2,905

 
238,189

Reclassification of tax effects resulting from the TCJA
 

 

 

 
(1,308
)
 
1,308

 

Issuance of common stock under stock-based compensation plan
 
191

 
2

 
1,556

 

 

 
1,558

Stock-based compensation
 

 

 
1,083

 

 

 
1,083

Dividends declared
 

 

 

 
(4,439
)
 

 
(4,439
)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax
 

 

 

 

 
(7,825
)
 
(7,825
)
Net income
 

 

 

 
29,339

 

 
29,339

Balance at September 30, 2018
 
21,227

 
$
212

 
$
157,721

 
$
103,584

 
$
(3,612
)
 
$
257,905



See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.


4

Table of Contents

KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
 
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
78,406

 
$
64,547

 
 
 
 
 
Investing activities:
 
 
 
 
Purchase of property and equipment
 
(622
)
 
(103
)
Purchases – fixed-maturity securities
 
(170,855
)
 
(70,086
)
Purchases – equity securities
 
(8,761
)
 
(20,915
)
Sales – fixed-maturity securities
 
8,408

 
6,939

Sales – equity securities
 
1,974

 

Maturities and calls – fixed-maturity securities
 
77,314

 
68,368

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(92,542
)
 
(15,797
)
 
 
 
 
 
Financing activities:
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from stock options exercised
 
1,558

 
968

Dividends paid
 
(4,425
)
 
(3,777
)
Payments on capital lease
 

 
(9
)
Net cash used in financing activities
 
(2,867
)
 
(2,818
)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents
 
(17,003
)
 
45,932

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year
 
81,747

 
50,752

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 
$
64,744

 
$
96,684



See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.


5

Table of Contents

KINSALE CAPITAL GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
1.    Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and notes have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP") for interim financial information and do not contain all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. For a more complete description of the Company’s business and accounting policies, these condensed consolidated interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements of Kinsale Capital Group, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (the "Company") included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the condensed consolidated financial statements have been included. Such adjustments consist only of normal recurring items. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results of operations for the full year.
Use of estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Management periodically reviews its estimates and assumptions.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
In January 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2016-01, "Financial Instruments – Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities" ("ASU 2016-01"), which eliminated the available-for-sale classification for equity investments, required changes in unrealized gains and losses in fair value of equity investments to be recognized in net income, required public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes, required separate presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset, and eliminated the requirement for public business entities to disclose the methods and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that was required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted this ASU and recorded a cumulative-effect adjustment, which reclassified unrealized gains of $6.5 million, net of $1.7 million of taxes, on equity investments from accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") to retained earnings. Prior periods have not been restated to conform to the current presentation. 
ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, "Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income," which permitted companies to reclassify the disproportionate income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the "TCJA") on items within AOCI to retained earnings. The FASB refers to these amounts as "stranded tax effects." The guidance is effective for all companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. Effective January 1,

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2018, the Company elected to early adopt this ASU and to reclassify the stranded income tax effects for available-for-sale securities of $1.3 million from AOCI to retained earnings. Other than those effects related to the TCJA, the Company uses the portfolio approach to release stranded tax effects in AOCI related to its available-for-sale fixed-maturity securities and its available-for-sale equity securities (prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-01). Under this approach, stranded tax effects remaining in AOCI are released only when the entire portfolio of the available-for-sale fixed-maturity securities and available-for-sale equity securities are liquidated, sold or extinguished.
Prospective accounting pronouncements
ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842)
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)" to improve the financial reporting of leasing transactions. Under this ASU, lessees will recognize a right-of-use asset and corresponding liability on the balance sheet for all leases, except for leases covering a period of 12 months or less. The liability is to be initially measured at the present value of the future minimum lease payments taking into account renewal options if applicable plus initial incremental direct costs such as commissions. The minimum payments are discounted using the rate implicit in the lease or, if not known, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate at the inception of the lease. The lessee’s income statement treatment for leases will vary depending on the nature of what is being leased. A financing type lease is present when, among other matters, the asset is being leased for a substantial portion of its economic life or has an end-of-term title transfer or a bargain purchase option as in today’s practice. The payment of the liability set up for such leases will be apportioned between interest and principal; the right-of use asset will be generally amortized on a straight-line basis. If the lease does not qualify as a financing type lease, it will be accounted for on the income statement as rent on a straight-line basis. This ASU is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has a limited number of leases subject to this ASU and is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption on its consolidated financial statements.
ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326)
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326)" to provide more useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments. Current GAAP delays the recognition of credit losses until it is probable a loss has been incurred. The update will require a financial asset measured at amortized cost to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected by means of an allowance for credit losses that runs through net income. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will also be recorded through an allowance for credit losses. However, the amendments would limit the amount of the allowance to the amount by which fair value is below amortized cost. The measurement of credit losses on available-for-sale securities is similar under current GAAP, but the update requires the use of the allowance account through which amounts can be reversed, rather than through an irreversible write-down. This ASU is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted beginning after December 15, 2018. Upon adoption, the update will be applied using the modified-retrospective approach, by which a cumulative-effect adjustment will be made to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period presented. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption on its consolidated financial statements.
ASU 2017-08, Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, "Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities," which shortens the amortization period of the premium for certain callable debt securities, from the contractual maturity date to the earliest call date. This ASU is effective in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including in an interim period. Upon adoption, the update will be applied on a modified retrospective basis, with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period presented. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-08 to have a material impact on its financial statements.

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Table of Contents

There are no other prospective accounting standards which, upon their effective date, would have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
2.     Investments
Available-for-sale investments
The following tables summarize the available-for-sale investments at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017:
 
 
September 30, 2018
 
 
Amortized Cost
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Gains
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government agencies
 
$
609

 
$
1

 
$
(2
)
 
$
608

Obligations of states, municipalities and political subdivisions
 
155,310

 
1,200

 
(3,001
)
 
153,509

Corporate and other securities
 
98,104

 
279

 
(941
)
 
97,442

Asset-backed securities
 
151,526

 
97

 
(1,333
)
 
150,290

Residential mortgage-backed securities
 
109,431

 
337

 
(3,606
)
 
106,162

Total available-for-sale investments
 
$
514,980

 
$
1,914

 
$
(8,883
)
 
$
508,011

 
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
Amortized Cost
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Gains
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government agencies
 
$
9,108

 
$
4

 
$
(14
)
 
$
9,098

Obligations of states, municipalities and political subdivisions
 
161,012

 
3,726

 
(412
)
 
164,326

Corporate and other securities
 
71,224

 
579

 
(172
)
 
71,631

Asset-backed securities
 
95,223

 
405

 
(268
)
 
95,360

Residential mortgage-backed securities
 
85,688

 
466

 
(1,378
)
 
84,776

Total fixed-maturity securities
 
422,255

 
5,180

 
(2,244
)
 
425,191

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exchange traded funds
 
26,041

 
8,339

 

 
34,380

Nonredeemable preferred stock
 
19,875

 
108

 
(231
)
 
19,752

Total equity securities
 
45,916

 
8,447

 
(231
)
 
54,132

Total available-for-sale investments
 
$
468,171

 
$
13,627

 
$
(2,475
)
 
$
479,323

Available-for-sale securities in a loss position
The Company regularly reviews all available-for-sale securities with unrealized losses to assess whether the decline in the securities’ fair value is deemed to be an other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI"). The Company considers a number of factors in completing its OTTI review, including the length of time and the extent to which fair value

8

Table of Contents

has been below cost and the financial condition of an issuer. In addition to specific issuer information, the Company also evaluates the current market and interest rate environment. Generally, a change in a security’s value caused by a change in the market or interest rate environment does not constitute an OTTI, but rather a temporary decline in fair value.
For fixed maturities, the Company considers whether it intends to sell the security or if it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before recovery, the credit quality of the issuer and the ability to recover all amounts outstanding when contractually due. When assessing whether it intends to sell a fixed-maturity security or if it is likely to be required to sell a fixed-maturity security before recovery of its amortized cost, the Company evaluates facts and circumstances including, but not limited to, decisions to reposition the investment portfolio, potential sales of investments to meet cash flow needs and potential sales of investments to capitalize on favorable pricing. For equity securities prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-01, the Company considered the near-term prospects of an issuer and its ability and intent to hold the security for a period of time sufficient to allow for anticipated recovery.
For fixed maturities where a decline in fair value is considered to be other-than-temporary and the Company intends to sell the security, or it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost, an impairment is recognized in net income based on the fair value of the security at the time of assessment, resulting in a new cost basis for the security. If the decline in fair value of a fixed-maturity security below its amortized cost is considered to be other-than-temporary based upon other considerations, the Company compares the estimated present value of the cash flows expected to be collected to the amortized cost of the security. The extent to which the estimated present value of the cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost of the security represents the credit-related portion of the OTTI, which is recognized in net income, resulting in a new cost basis for the security. Any remaining decline in fair value represents the noncredit portion of the OTTI, which is recognized in other comprehensive income. For equity securities prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-01, a decline in fair value that was considered to be other-than-temporary was recognized in net income based on the fair value of the security at the time of assessment, resulting in a new cost basis for the security.
The following tables summarize gross unrealized losses and fair value for available-for-sale securities by length of time that the securities have continuously been in an unrealized loss position:
 
 
September 30, 2018
 
 
Less than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Longer
 
Total
 
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government agencies
 
$

 
$

 
$
497

 
$
(2
)
 
$
497

 
$
(2
)
Obligations of states, municipalities and political subdivisions
 
65,685

 
(1,514
)
 
36,359

 
(1,487
)
 
102,044

 
(3,001
)
Corporate and other securities
 
64,046

 
(761
)
 
11,201

 
(180
)
 
75,247

 
(941
)
Asset-backed securities
 
84,051

 
(925
)
 
13,965

 
(408
)
 
98,016

 
(1,333
)
Residential mortgage-backed securities
 
32,629

 
(289
)
 
55,424

 
(3,317
)
 
88,053

 
(3,606
)
Total fixed-maturity securities
 
$
246,411

 
$
(3,489
)
 
$
117,446

 
$
(5,394
)
 
$
363,857

 
$
(8,883
)

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At September 30, 2018, the Company held 354 fixed-maturity securities in an unrealized loss position with a total estimated fair value of $363.9 million and gross unrealized losses of $8.9 million. Of these securities, 138 were in a continuous unrealized loss position for greater than one year. As discussed above, the Company regularly reviews all fixed-maturity securities within its investment portfolio to determine whether any impairment has occurred. Unrealized losses were caused by interest rate changes or other market factors and were not credit-specific issues. At September 30, 2018, 86.3% of the Company’s fixed-maturity securities were rated "A-" or better and all of the Company’s fixed-maturity securities made expected coupon payments under the contractual terms of the securities. Management concluded that there were no other-than-temporary impairments from fixed-maturity securities with unrealized losses for the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
 
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
Less than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Longer
 
Total
 
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Gross Unrealized Holding Losses
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government agencies
 
$
3,497

 
$
(2
)
 
$
5,488

 
$
(12
)
 
$
8,985

 
$
(14
)
Obligations of states, municipalities and political subdivisions
 
7,258

 
(36
)
 
38,143

 
(376
)
 
45,401

 
(412
)
Corporate and other securities
 
30,944

 
(98
)
 
13,444

 
(74
)
 
44,388

 
(172
)
Asset-backed securities
 
27,609

 
(108
)
 
10,706

 
(160
)
 
38,315

 
(268
)
Residential mortgage-backed securities
 
9,081

 
(83
)
 
57,262

 
(1,295
)
 
66,343

 
(1,378
)
Total fixed-maturity securities
 
78,389

 
(327
)
 
125,043

 
(1,917
)
 
203,432

 
(2,244
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exchange traded funds
 
130

 

 

 

 
130

 

Nonredeemable preferred stocks
 
10,649

 
(231
)
 

 

 
10,649

 
(231
)
Total equity securities
 
10,779

 
(231
)
 

 

 
10,779

 
(231
)
Total investments available for sale
 
$
89,168

 
$
(558
)
 
$
125,043

 
$
(1,917
)
 
$
214,211

 
$
(2,475
)
At December 31, 2017, the Company held 195 fixed-maturity securities in an unrealized loss position with a total estimated fair value of $203.4 million and gross unrealized losses of $2.2 million. Of those securities, 126 were in a continuous unrealized loss position for greater than one year. Unrealized losses were caused by interest rate changes or other market factors and were not credit-specific issues. At December 31, 2017, 91.1% of the Company’s fixed-maturity securities were rated "A-" or better and all of the Company’s fixed-maturity securities made expected coupon payments under the contractual terms of the securities. At December 31, 2017, the Company held 13 securities in its equity portfolio with a total estimated fair value of $10.8 million and gross unrealized losses of $0.2 millionNone of these securities were in a continuous unrealized loss position for greater than one year. Based on its review, the Company concluded that were no other-than-temporary impairments from fixed-maturity or equity securities with unrealized losses for the year ended December 31, 2017.

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Contractual maturities of available-for-sale fixed-maturity securities
The amortized cost and estimated fair value of available-for-sale fixed-maturity securities at September 30, 2018 are summarized, by contractual maturity, as follows:
 
 
September 30, 2018
 
 
Amortized
 
Estimated
 
 
Cost
 
Fair Value
 
 
(in thousands)
Due in one year or less
 
$
17,204

 
$
17,156

Due after one year through five years
 
65,134

 
64,920

Due after five years through ten years
 
46,019

 
46,028

Due after ten years
 
125,666

 
123,455

Asset-backed securities
 
151,526

 
150,290

Residential mortgage-backed securities
 
109,431

 
106,162

Total fixed maturities
 
$
514,980

 
$
508,011

Expected maturities may differ from contractual maturities because borrowers may have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties, and the lenders may have the right to put the securities back to the borrower.
Net investment income
The following table presents the components of net investment income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Interest:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Taxable bonds
 
$
2,548

 
$
1,539

 
$
6,548

 
$
4,584

Tax exempt municipal bonds
 
1,068

 
990

 
3,236

 
2,602

Cash equivalents and short-term investments
 
327

 
206

 
804

 
460

Dividends on equity securities
 
445

 
287

 
1,369

 
582

Gross investment income
 
4,388

 
3,022

 
11,957

 
8,228

Investment expenses
 
(303
)
 
(257
)
 
(861
)
 
(745
)
Net investment income
 
$
4,085

 
$
2,765

 
$
11,096

 
$
7,483



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Realized investment gains and losses
The following table presents realized investment gains and losses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed-maturity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Realized gains
 
$

 
$
44

 
$
244

 
$
68

Realized losses
 
(6
)
 

 
(10
)
 
(32
)
Net realized gains (losses) from fixed-maturity securities
 
(6
)
 
44

 
234

 
36

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Realized gains
 

 

 
57

 

Realized losses
 

 

 
(11
)
 

Net realized gains from equity securities
 

 

 
46

 

Net realized investment gains (losses)
 
$
(6
)
 
$
44

 
$
280

 
$
36

Change in net unrealized gains (losses) on investments
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the changes in net unrealized losses for fixed-maturity securities were $2.5 million and $9.9 million, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, the changes in net unrealized gains for fixed-maturity securities were $1.4 million and $4.9 million and the changes in net unrealized gains for equity securities was $1.1 million and $2.6 million, respectively.
Insurance – statutory deposits
The Company had invested assets with a carrying value of $6.9 million and $7.1 million on deposit with state regulatory authorities at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
Payable for investments purchased
The Company recorded a payable for investments purchased, not yet settled, of $10.2 million at September 30, 2018 and $1.0 million at December 31, 2017. The payable balances were included in the "other liabilities" line item of the balance sheet and treated as non-cash transactions for purposes of cash flow presentation. 

3.     Fair value measurements
Fair value was estimated for each class of financial instrument for which it was practical to estimate fair value. Fair value is defined as the price in the principal market that would be received for an asset to facilitate an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Market participants are assumed to be independent, knowledgeable, able and willing to transact an exchange and not acting under duress. Fair value hierarchy disclosures are based on the quality of inputs used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and

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the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). Adjustments to transaction prices or quoted market prices may be required in illiquid or disorderly markets in order to estimate fair value.
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are defined as follows:
Level 1 - Inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities traded in active markets.
Level 2 - Inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability and market-corroborated inputs.
Level 3 - Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable for the asset or liability and are significant to the fair value measurement.
Fair values of the Company's investment portfolio are estimated using unadjusted prices obtained by its investment manager from third party pricing services, where available. For securities where the Company is unable to obtain fair values from a pricing service or broker, fair values are estimated using information obtained from the Company's investment manager. Management performs several procedures to ascertain the reasonableness of investment values included in the condensed consolidated financial statements including 1) obtaining and reviewing internal control reports from the Company's investment manager that obtains fair values from third party pricing services, 2) discussing with the Company's investment manager its process for reviewing and validating pricing obtained from outside pricing services and 3) reviewing the security pricing received from the Company's investment manager and monitoring changes in unrealized gains and losses. The Company has evaluated the various types of securities in its investment portfolio to determine an appropriate fair value hierarchy level based upon trading activity and the observability of market inputs.
The following tables present the balances of assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, by level within the fair value hierarchy.
 
 
September 30, 2018
 
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
 
(in thousands)
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government agencies
 
$
608

 
$

 
$

 
$
608

Obligations of states, municipalities and political subdivisions
 

 
153,509

 

 
153,509

Corporate and other securities
 

 
97,442

 

 
97,442

Asset-backed securities
 

 
150,290

 

 
150,290

Residential mortgage-backed securities
 

 
106,162

 

 
106,162

Total fixed maturities
 
608

 
507,403

 

 
508,011

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exchange traded funds
 
41,281

 

 

 
41,281

Nonredeemable preferred stock
 

 
20,167

 

 
20,167

Total equity securities
 
41,281

 
20,167

 

 
61,448

Total
 
$
41,889

 
$
527,570

 
$

 
$
569,459


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December 31, 2017
 
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
 
(in thousands)
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government agencies
 
$
9,098

 
$

 
$

 
$
9,098

Obligations of states, municipalities and political subdivisions
 

 
164,326

 

 
164,326

Corporate and other securities
 

 
71,631

 

 
71,631

Asset-backed securities
 

 
95,360

 

 
95,360

Residential mortgage-backed securities
 

 
84,776

 

 
84,776

Total fixed maturities
 
9,098

 
416,093

 

 
425,191

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exchange traded funds
 
34,380

 

 

 
34,380

Nonredeemable preferred stock
 

 
19,752

 

 
19,752

Total equity securities
 
34,380

 
19,752

 

 
54,132

Total
 
$
43,478

 
$
435,845

 
$

 
$
479,323

There were no transfers into or out of Level 1 and Level 2 during the nine months ended September 30, 2018. There were no assets or liabilities measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis as of September 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017.
Due to the relatively short-term nature of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, receivables and payables, their carrying amounts are reasonable estimates of fair value.

4.     Deferred policy acquisition costs
The following table presents the amounts of policy acquisition costs deferred and amortized for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Balance, beginning of period
 
$
14,123

 
$
11,578

 
$
11,775

 
$
10,150

Policy acquisition costs deferred:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct commissions
 
10,232

 
8,024

 
29,907

 
24,529

Ceding commissions
 
(3,123
)
 
(2,519
)
 
(8,273
)
 
(7,502
)
Other underwriting and policy acquisition costs
 
781

 
713

 
2,284

 
2,230

Policy acquisition costs deferred
 
7,890

 
6,218

 
23,918

 
19,257

Amortization of net policy acquisition costs
 
(7,528
)
 
(6,071
)
 
(21,208
)
 
(17,682
)
Balance, end of period
 
$
14,485

 
$
11,725

 
$
14,485

 
$
11,725


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5.     Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses
Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 consist of the following:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses incurred:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct commissions
 
$
9,517

 
$
8,001

 
$
26,652

 
$
22,694

Ceding commissions
 
(2,716
)
 
(2,479
)
 
(7,624
)
 
(7,291
)
Other operating expenses
 
7,049

 
5,467

 
19,739

 
17,372

Total
 
$
13,850

 
$
10,989

 
$
38,767

 
$
32,775

Other operating expenses within underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses include salaries, bonus and employee benefits expenses of $5.3 million and $4.2 million for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Salaries, bonus and employee benefits expenses were $15.6 million and $13.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

6.    Stock-based compensation
On July 27, 2016, the Kinsale Capital Group, Inc. 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the "2016 Incentive Plan") became effective. The 2016 Incentive Plan provides for grants of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, other stock-based awards and other cash-based awards to directors, officers and other employees, as well as independent contractors or consultants providing consulting or advisory services to the Company. The number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2016 Incentive Plan may not exceed 2,073,832. The total compensation cost that has been charged against income for share-based compensation arrangements was $1.1 million and $0.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Restricted Stock Awards
During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Board of Directors approved, and the Company granted, restricted stock awards under the 2016 Incentive Plan. The restricted stock awards were valued on the date of grant and will vest over a period of one to four years corresponding to the anniversary date of the grants. The fair value of restricted stock awards was determined based on the closing trading price of the Company’s shares on the grant date or, if no shares were traded on the grant date, the last preceding date for which there was a sale of shares. Except for restrictions placed on the transferability of restricted stock, holders of unvested restricted stock have full stockholder’s rights, including voting rights and the right to receive cash dividends. Unvested shares of restricted stock awards and accrued dividends, if any, are forfeited upon the termination of service to or employment with the Company.

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A summary of all restricted stock activity under the equity compensation plans for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 is as follows:
 
 
For the Nine Months Ended
 September 30, 2018
 
 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value per Share
Non-vested outstanding at the beginning of the period
 

 
$

Granted
 
94,270

 
$
52.99

Vested
 

 
$

Forfeited
 
(1,247
)
 
$
53.60

Non-vested outstanding at the end of the period
 
93,023

 
$
52.98

As of September 30, 2018, the Company had $4.4 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense expected to be charged to earnings over a weighted-average period of 3.6 years.
Stock Options
On July 27, 2016, the Board of Directors approved, and the Company granted, 1,036,916 stock options with an exercise price equal to the Initial Public Offering price of $16.00 per share and a weighted-average grant-date fair value of $2.71 per share. The options have a maximum contractual term of 10 years and vest in 4 equal annual installments following the date of the grant.
The value of the options granted was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes pricing model using the following assumptions:
Risk-free rate of return
 
1.26
%
Dividend yield
 
1.25
%
Expected share price volatility(1)
 
18.50
%
Expected life in years(2)
 
6.3 years

(1)
Expected volatility was based on the Company’s competitors within the industry.
(2)
Expected life was calculated using the simplified method, which was an average of the contractual term of the option and its ordinary vesting period, as the Company did not have sufficient historical data for determining the expected term of our stock option awards.

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A summary of option activity as of September 30, 2018, and changes during the period then ended is presented below:
 
 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted-average exercise price
 
Weighted-average remaining years of contractual term
 
Aggregate intrinsic value (in thousands)
Outstanding at January 1, 2018
 
930,440

 
$
16.00

 
 
 
 
Granted
 

 

 
 
 
 
Forfeited
 
(13,185
)
 
16.00

 
 
 
 
Exercised
 
(97,402
)
 
16.00

 
 
 
 
Outstanding at September 30, 2018
 
819,853

 
$
16.00

 
7.8
 
$
39,238

Exercisable at September 30, 2018
 
355,487

 
$
16.00

 
7.8
 
$
17,014

The total intrinsic value of options exercised was $4.0 million and $1.3 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of September 30, 2018, the Company had $1.2 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense expected to be charged to earnings over a weighted-average period of 1.8 years.

7.    Earnings per share
The following represents a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic and diluted earnings per share computations contained in the consolidated financial statements:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Net income
 
$
11,940

 
$
4,201

 
$
29,339

 
$
18,977

Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic

 
21,102

 
20,995

 
21,073

 
20,978

Effect of potential dilutive securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Conversion of stock options
 
602

 
525

 
595

 
483

Conversion of restricted stock
 
17

 

 
3

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding - diluted

 
21,721

 
21,520

 
21,671

 
21,461

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
0.57

 
$
0.20

 
$
1.39

 
$
0.90

Diluted
 
$
0.55

 
$
0.20

 
$
1.35

 
$
0.88

There were approximately 86 thousand anti-dilutive stock awards for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. There were no anti-dilutive stock awards for the three months ended September 30, 2018 or the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017.


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Table of Contents

8. Income taxes
On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law the TCJA. The legislation significantly changed U.S. tax law by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, and modifying the manner in which property and casualty insurance loss reserves are computed for federal income tax purposes. The Company records a deduction for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses when computing its taxable income. Prior to the new legislation, the deduction was discounted using interest rates and loss payment patterns prescribed by the U.S. Treasury. The TCJA changed the prescribed interest rates, which are now based on corporate bond yield curves, and extended the applicable time periods for the loss payment pattern period for long-tailed lines of business. Beginning in 2018, a transition rule will spread the adjustments related to pre-effective-date losses and loss adjustment expenses over the next eight years.
U.S. GAAP requires companies to recognize the effect of tax law changes in the period of enactment. The SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the TCJA. The TCJA did not specify the application of certain elements of the legislation and the U.S. Treasury has yet to issue interpretive guidance to specify the loss payment patterns and the corporate bond yield curve under the new law for 2018. The Company recognized provisional tax amounts of $3.5 million related to the transition adjustment for loss discounting, which was included in its components of deferred tax assets and liabilities as part of its consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. The ultimate impact may differ from these provisional amounts due to, among other things, additional analysis, changes in interpretations and assumptions the Company has made, additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, and actions the Company may take as a result of the TCJA. During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, there were no changes to these amounts and no measurement period adjustments were recorded. The accounting is expected to be complete when the U.S. Treasury issues further guidance or within the measurement period that ends in the fourth quarter of 2018.
The Company uses the estimated annual effective tax rate method for calculating its tax provision in interim periods, which represents the Company's best estimate of the effective tax rate expected for the full year. The estimated annual effective tax rate typically differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily as a result of tax-exempt investment income and any discrete items recognized during the period. The Company's effective tax rates were 15.3% and 20.1% for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate in the third quarter of 2018 compared to the third quarter of 2017 was primarily due to the impact of the TCJA, which lowered the U.S. statutory tax rate from 35% to 21% starting January 1, 2018, offset in part by a larger percentage of tax benefits in the prior-year period from stock options exercised and tax-exempt interest income relative to pre-tax income. The Company's effective tax rates were 17.1% and 30.5% for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the same period in the prior year was primarily due to the impact of the TCJA.

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Table of Contents

9.     Reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses
The following table presents a reconciliation of consolidated beginning and ending reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses:
 
 
September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Net reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, beginning of year
 
$
267,493

 
$
194,602

Commutation of MLQS
 

 
27,929

Adjusted net reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses, beginning of year
 
267,493

 
222,531

Incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses:
 
 
 
 
Current year
 
96,673

 
87,365

Prior years
 
(5,722
)
 
(11,831
)
Total net losses and loss adjustment expenses incurred
 
90,951

 
75,534

 
 
 
 
 
Payments:
 
 
 
 
Current year
 
4,095

 
4,317

Prior years
 
52,056

 
28,763

Total payments
 
56,151

 
33,080

Net reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, end of period
 
302,293

 
264,985

Reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses
 
63,521

 
45,949

Gross reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, end of period
 
$
365,814

 
$
310,934

During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses held at December 31, 2017 developed favorably by $5.7 million. The favorable development was primarily attributable to the 2017 accident year of $4.8 million and the 2016 accident year of $3.3 million, which resulted from reported losses emerging at a lower level than expected. This favorable development was offset in part by adverse development of $2.4 million from the 2011 through 2015 accident years .
During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, the reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses held at December 31, 2016 developed favorably by $11.8 million. The favorable development was attributable primarily to the 2016 accident year of $8.6 million, the 2015 accident year of $4.8 million and the 2014 accident year of $1.8 million, which was due to reported losses emerging at a lower level than expected. This favorable development was offset in part by adverse development of $3.4 million from the 2011 through 2013 accident years.
Multi-line quota share reinsurance
Effective January 1, 2017, the Company commuted its multi-line quota share treaty ("MLQS") covering the period January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, which reduced reinsurance recoverables on unpaid losses by approximately $27.9 million. The commutation did not have any effect on the Company's results of operations or cash flows for the applicable period.

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10.     Reinsurance
The following table summarizes the effect of reinsurance on premiums written and earned for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Written:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct
 
$
69,546

 
$
55,633

 
$
203,374

 
$
166,248

Ceded
 
(11,602
)
 
(8,562
)
 
(29,448
)
 
(25,242
)
Net written
 
$
57,944

 
$
47,071

 
$
173,926

 
$
141,006

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earned:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct
 
$
64,713

 
$
53,527

 
$
180,909

 
$
153,293

Ceded
 
(10,417
)
 
(8,497
)
 
(27,659
)
 
(24,778
)
Net earned
 
$
54,296

 
$
45,030

 
$
153,250

 
$
128,515

Incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses were net of reinsurance (ceded incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses) of $15.1 million and $6.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Ceded incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses were $23.0 million and $8.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. At September 30, 2018, reinsurance recoverables on paid and unpaid losses were $1.4 million and $63.5 million, respectively. At December 31, 2017, reinsurance recoverables on paid and unpaid losses were $1.4 million and $48.2 million, respectively.


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11.     Other comprehensive (loss) income
The following table summarizes the components of other comprehensive (loss) income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in thousands)
Unrealized (losses) gains arising during the period, before income taxes:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed-maturity securities
 
$
(2,472
)
 
$
1,416

 
$
(9,665
)
 
$
4,905

Equity securities (1)
 

 
1,136

 

 
2,634

Total unrealized (losses) gains arising during the period, before income taxes
 
(2,472
)
 
2,552

 
(9,665
)
 
7,539

Income taxes
 
519

 
(893
)
 
2,030

 
(2,638
)
Unrealized (losses) gains arising during the period, net of income taxes
 
(1,953
)
 
1,659

 
(7,635
)
 
4,901

Less reclassification adjustment:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net realized gains on fixed-maturity securities, before income taxes
 

 
31

 
240

 
23

Income taxes
 

 
(11
)
 
(50
)
 
(8
)
Reclassification adjustment included in net income
 

 
20

 
190

 
15

Other comprehensive (loss) income
 
$
(1,953
)
 
$
1,639

 
$
(7,825
)
 
$
4,886

(1) Adoption of ASU 2016-01, "Financial Instruments – Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities," which was effective January 1, 2018, eliminated the available-for-sale classification for equity investments and required changes in unrealized gains and losses in the fair value of equity securities to be recognized in net income.
The sale of an available-for-sale fixed-maturity security results in amounts being reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to realized gains or losses in current period earnings. The related tax effect of the reclassification adjustment is recorded in income tax expense in current period earnings. See Note 2 for additional information.

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Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The discussion and analysis below includes certain forward-looking statements that are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in "Risk Factors" in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors.
The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ended December 31, 2018, or for any other future period. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report, and in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.
References to the "Company," "Kinsale," "we," "us," and "our" are to Kinsale Capital Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.

Overview
Founded in 2009, Kinsale is a specialty insurance company. Kinsale focuses exclusively on the excess and surplus lines ("E&S") market in the U.S., where we use our underwriting expertise to write coverages for hard-to-place small business risks and personal lines risks. We market these insurance products in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, primarily through a network of independent insurance brokers.
We have one reportable segment, our Excess and Surplus Lines Insurance segment, which offers property and casualty ("P&C") insurance products through the E&S market. For the first nine months of 2018, the percentage breakdown of our gross written premiums was 91.7% casualty and 8.3% property. Our underwriting divisions include construction, small business, general casualty, energy, excess casualty, professional liability, life sciences, product liability, allied health, health care, commercial property, environmental, management liability, inland marine, public entity and commercial insurance. We also write a small amount of homeowners insurance in the personal lines market, which in aggregate represented 4.6% of our gross written premiums in the first nine months of 2018.
Components of our results of operations
Gross written premiums
Gross written premiums are the amount received or to be received for insurance policies written or assumed by us during a specific period of time without reduction for policy acquisition costs, reinsurance costs or other deductions. The volume of our gross written premiums in any given period is generally influenced by:
New business submissions;
Conversion of new business submissions into policies;
Renewals of existing policies; and
Average size and premium rate of bound policies.
We earn insurance premiums on a pro rata basis over the term of a policy. Our insurance policies generally have a term of one year. Net earned premiums represent the earned portion of our gross written premiums, less that portion of our gross written premiums that is ceded under our reinsurance agreements.
Ceded written premiums
Ceded written premiums are the amount of gross written premiums ceded to reinsurers. We enter into reinsurance contracts to limit our exposure to potential large losses. Ceded written premiums are earned over the reinsurance contract

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period in proportion to the period of risk covered. The volume of our ceded written premiums is impacted by the level of our gross written premiums and any decision we make to increase or decrease retention levels.
Net investment income
Net investment income is an important component of our results of operations. We earn investment income on our portfolio of cash and invested assets. Our cash and invested assets are primarily comprised of fixed-maturity securities, and may also include cash and cash equivalents, equity securities and short-term investments. The principal factors that influence net investment income are the size of our investment portfolio and the yield on that portfolio. As measured by amortized cost (which excludes changes in fair value, such as from changes in interest rates), the size of our investment portfolio is mainly a function of our invested equity capital along with premiums we receive from our insureds less payments on policyholder claims.
Net investment gains (losses)
Net investment gains (losses) are a function of the difference between the amount received by us on the sale of a security and the security's amortized cost, the unrealized gains and losses on our equity portfolio, as well as any "other-than-temporary" impairments recognized in earnings.
Losses and loss adjustment expenses
Losses and loss adjustment expenses are a function of the amount and type of insurance contracts we write and the loss experience associated with the underlying coverage. In general, our losses and loss adjustment expenses are affected by:
Frequency of claims associated with the particular types of insurance contracts that we write;
Trends in the average size of losses incurred on a particular type of business;
Mix of business written by us;
Changes in the legal or regulatory environment related to the business we write;
Trends in legal defense costs;
Wage inflation; and
Inflation in medical costs.
Losses and loss adjustment expenses are based on an actuarial analysis of the estimated losses, including losses incurred during the period and changes in estimates from prior periods. Losses and loss adjustment expenses may be paid out over a period of years.
Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses
Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses include policy acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses. Policy acquisition costs are principally comprised of the commissions we pay our brokers, net of ceding commissions we receive on business ceded under certain reinsurance contracts. Policy acquisition costs that are directly related to the successful acquisition of those policies are deferred. The amortization of such policy acquisition costs is charged to expense in proportion to premium earned over the policy life. Other underwriting expenses represent the general and administrative expenses of our insurance business including employment costs, telecommunication and technology costs, the costs of our lease, and legal and auditing fees.
Income tax expense
Currently all of our income tax expense relates to federal income taxes. Kinsale Insurance Company is generally not subject to income taxes in the states in which it operates; however, our non-insurance subsidiaries are subject to state income taxes. The amount of income tax expense or benefit recorded in future periods will depend on the jurisdictions in which we operate and the tax laws and regulations in effect.

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Key metrics
We discuss certain key metrics, described below, which provide useful information about our business and the operational factors underlying our financial performance.
Underwriting income is a non-GAAP financial measure. We define underwriting income as pre-tax income, excluding net investment income, net investment gains and losses, and other income and expenses. See "—Reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures" for a reconciliation of net income to underwriting income in accordance with GAAP.
Loss ratio, expressed as a percentage, is the ratio of losses and loss adjustment expenses to net earned premiums, net of the effects of reinsurance.
Expense ratio, expressed as a percentage, is the ratio of underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses to net earned premiums.
Combined ratio is the sum of the loss ratio and the expense ratio. A combined ratio under 100% generally indicates an underwriting profit. A combined ratio over 100% generally indicates an underwriting loss.
Return on equity is net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending stockholders’ equity during the period. Our overall financial goal is to produce a return on equity in the mid-teens or higher over the long-term.
Net retention ratio is the ratio of net written premiums to gross written premiums.

Three months ended September 30, 2018 compared to three months ended September 30, 2017
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
($ in thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
% Change
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross written premiums
 
$
69,546

 
$
55,633

 
$
13,913

 
25.0
 %
Ceded written premiums
 
(11,602
)
 
(8,562
)
 
(3,040
)
 
35.5
 %
Net written premiums
 
$
57,944

 
$
47,071

 
$
10,873

 
23.1
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net earned premiums
 
$
54,296

 
$
45,030

 
$
9,266

 
20.6
 %
Losses and loss adjustment expenses
 
32,085

 
31,568

 
517

 
1.6
 %
Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses
 
13,850

 
10,989

 
2,861

 
26.0
 %
Underwriting income (1)
 
8,361

 
2,473

 
5,888

 
238.1
 %
Other expenses, net
 
(105
)
 
(27
)
 
(78
)
 
288.9
 %
Net investment income
 
4,085

 
2,765

 
1,320

 
47.7
 %
Net unrealized gains on equity securities
 
1,760

 

 
1,760

 
NM

Net realized (losses) gains on investments
 
(6
)
 
44

 
(50
)
 
(113.6
)%
Income before taxes
 
14,095

 
5,255

 
8,840

 
168.2
 %
Income tax expense
 
2,155

 
1,054

 
1,101

 
104.5
 %
Net income
 
$
11,940

 
$
4,201

 
$
7,739

 
184.2
 %